VW Passat B5
since 1996 release
Repair and operation of the car
Foltsvagen Passat B5
+ Maintenance instruction
- 1. Maintenance
1.1. Technical characteristics
+ 1.2. Frequency of service
+ 1.3. Engine oil
1.4. Check of the exhaust system
+ 1.5. Engine cooling system
- 1.6. Spark plugs
1.6.1. Replacement of spark plugs
1.7. Discharge of water from the fuel filter (diesel engines)
1.8. Replacement of the fuel filter (diesel engines)
1.9. Check of tightness of hoses and effluence of liquid
1.10. Replacement of the filtering element of the air filter
1.11. Check of a condition of a poliklinovy belt
1.12. Maple belts
1.13. Measurement of wear of gear belts on diesel engines
1.14. Box of transfers / main transfer
1.15. Check of a protective cover of a power shaft
1.16. Visual check of tightness of the transmission
1.17. Check of level of oil in the mechanical transmission
1.18. Check of oil in the main transfer of automatic transmissions
1.19. Check/replacement of level of oil in the automatic transmission
1.20. Check of a forward suspension bracket and steering
1.21. Check of dustproof covers of hinges of a forward suspension bracket
1.22. Check of the shock-absorber
1.23. Check of a radiator
1.24. Check of electric chains
+ 1.25. Brake fluid
1.26. Check of front brake shoes
1.27. Check of back brake shoes
1.28. Check of brake hoses
1.29. Check of cables of the emergency brake
1.30. Check of level of liquid in the amplifier of steering
1.31. Dust filter
1.32. Rechargeable battery
1.33. Hinges of doors
+ 1.34. Windscreen washers
1.35. Brushes of screen wipers
1.36. Check of a starting position of the lever of a screen wiper
1.37. Check of a tilt angle of the lever of a screen wiper
1.38. Replacement of the battery in a key of remote control
1.39. Zeroing of the Service-indicator
+ 2. Engines
+ 3. Cooling system
+ 4. Fuel system
+ 5. Engine management
+ 6. Exhaust system
+ 7. Transmission
+ 8. Running gear
+ 9. Steering
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Body
+ 12. Heating, ventilation
+ 13. Electric equipment
There are two types of consolidations at installation in a cylinder head: with a flat saddle and elastic (steel or copper and asbestos) laying or with a conic saddle without laying. At installation of a new candle first of all, it is necessary to check what consolidation предусмот Renault in a cylinder head, diameter and length of a carving part. If to establish a candle with a long carving part in a head with a short carving, then the acting part of a candle will become covered by a deposit and pitches, lead deposits. The candle will overheat, perhaps, oplavleny carvings. At a reversing of a candle it is possible to damage because of it a carving in a head цилинд ра. At a short carving part of a candle and long in a head the deposit and various deposits hammer a carving, there is its oplavleniye. After long work it is necessary to pass a tap a carving part in a cylinder head, but so that dirt did not remain in the cylinder.
Depending on appointment, candles have a number of design features. So, screened candles with tight consolidation of a wire of high voltage are applied to the cars and motorcycles working in severe road conditions when hit on the water engine is possible and at increased requirements to the level of a radio noise. For the purpose of increase in stability of work of candles on the case several electrodes sometimes become or at all there are no side electrodes (with a floating electrode).
Depending on features of working process of a candle are carried out with the insulator drowned in the case or with the acting insulator (for combustion chambers from intensive turbolizatsiy mix in the combustion chamber).
The major parameter characterizing a candle is temperature condition of its elements, and first of all is central го an electrode and a surface of a skirt of the insulator. The main problem during creation of a candle for the high-speed engine is implementation of contradictory requirements. On the one hand – to provide rather high temperature of a skirt of the insulator that during the long work on small loadings and idling to prevent formation on it of the deposit leading to shunting especially at low temperatures. Upon transition to big loadings at high temperatures there is a self-cleaning of the insulator of a candle due to burning out of deposits on it. On the other hand, at high numbers of turns and big loading temperature of the central electrode and lower part of the insulator should not exceed the top limit at which there is kalilny ignition (mix ignition even before emergence of a spark from system of ignition). To a cycle ignition comes from a cycle earlier and earlier, temperature of details grows until something does not burn down – at best a candle, in the worst – the piston. So because of a small candle there can be big troubles.
How to prevent a possibility of emergence of kalilny ignition? First of all, it is necessary to watch for correct (according to the instruction) installation of corners of an advancing of ignition, without allowing too early ignition. At contact system the corner of an advancing of ignition can increase unexpectedly, for example, if jumps aside one of the soldered contacts of the breaker.
The second condition – always to fill in the gasoline corresponding to engine forsirovka level (to extent of compression, the nominal frequency of rotation, filling, etc.). The it is lower than an octane number, the tendency to kalilny ignition is more. And if after all low-octane gasoline is filled in, then it is impossible to come to big loadings at high numbers of turns.
The third condition, sometimes the most important – to establish candles with the required kalilny number according to a rekomend a tion of manufacturer of the engine.
The designation of kalilny number at one time accepted by most the European firms on time (in seconds) is the most convenient after which at tests on special installation kalilny ignition begins. The last years most firms passed to a symbol of kalilny number of candles.
If the insulator of "snow-white" coloring – means, the candle worked at the maximum permissible thermal mode. Reasons: too earlier ignition, reimpoverishment of mix or too "hot" candle for this engine. It is necessary to check adjustments of the carburetor, the characteristic of the automatic machine of an advancing of ignition and if they are normal, to put colder candle. Well, and the following degree of an overheat of a candle – the melted-off candle electrodes (it is good that not burned through piston bottom).
It can sometimes turn out that all candles of one brand in different cylinders have insulators, different in color. The reasons can be a little. As a rule, in carburetor engines mix (on structure) and anti-detonation additives on cylinders are distributed unevenly.
Meet the engine various sizes of extent of compression for each of cylinders. And between engines of one model extent of compression differs sometimes on the whole unit. At the expense of a deviation from technological processes, materials, etc. among candles of one brand the wide spacing on the actual kalilny numbers is also observed. At a big difference in a condition of candles sometimes it is necessary even to install in one engine candles with different kalilny numbers. Always to have a stock on kalilny number in various service conditions, it is expedient to have two sets of candles and to establish in the summer colder, and in the winter "hot".
Lately a number of firms releases candles with the expanded thermal field of a candle. For this purpose the central electrode becomes copper, the covering from heat-resistant materials (nickel, chrome) from above is put. Sometimes and side electrodes are made of metal with good heat conductivity and a heat-resistant covering. Other original decision is production of the tiny central electrode from platinum which is not acting from the insulator. Especially cold candles with kalilny number 300 above for the forced engines (with турбонаддуовм, duple, etc.) are usually made with a silver electrode of small diameter and a short skirt of the insulator. Before establishing such candles, it is sometimes recommended to warm up at first the engine on hot candles and only then to establish cold.
It must be kept in mind that when cleaning a candle in the sanding device the surface of the insulator collapses. Better, having turned a candle, to fill in solvent, gasoline in the case or to apply a special aerosol barrel. Then a wooden stick to clear the insulator and to blow it compressed air.
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